Beranda > Informasi > Human nose too cold for bird flu, says new study

Human nose too cold for bird flu, says new study

Avian influenza viruses do not thrive in humans because the temperature inside a person’s nose is too low, according to research published today in the journal PLoS Pathogens. The authors of the study, from Imperial College London and the University of North Carolina, say this may be one of the reasons why bird flu viruses do not cause pandemics in humans easily.

There are 16 subtypes of avian influenza and some can mutate into forms that can infect humans, by swapping proteins on their surface with proteins from human influenza viruses.

Today’s study shows that normal avian influenza viruses do not spread extensively in cells at 32 degrees Celsius, the temperature inside the human nose. The researchers say this is probably because the viruses usually infect the guts of birds, which are warmer, at 40 degrees Celsius. This means that avian flu viruses that have not mutated are less likely to infect people, because the first site of infection in humans is usually the nose. If a normal avian flu virus infected a human nose, the virus would not be able to grow and spread between cells, so it would be less likely to damage cells and cause respiratory illness.

The researchers also found that when they created a mutated human influenza virus by adding a protein from the surface of an avian influenza virus, this mutated virus struggled to thrive at 32 degrees Celsius. This suggests that if a new human influenza strain evolved by adopting proteins from an avian influenza virus, this would need to undergo further changes in order to adapt to the conditions in the human body.

The researchers reached their conclusions by growing cells from the human airway and infecting them with different human and avian influenza viruses, including H5N1, to see how well the viruses grew and spread. The human influenza viruses grew equally well in the cells whether they were maintained at 37 degrees Celsius, our core body temperature, or at 32 degrees Celsius, the temperature of the nose. In contrast, the four avian influenza viruses tested grew well at 37 degrees Celsius but grew very slowly at 32 degrees Celsius.

When the researchers added proteins from an avian influenza virus to a human influenza virus, the human influenza virus also grew slowly and struggled to replicate at 32 degrees Celsius.

As viruses kill the cells they infect, the researchers also measured the extent of cell death in the model. This showed that at 32 degrees Celsius, far fewer cells died as a result of infection with avian influenza compared with human influenza, supporting the idea that the avian virus could not thrive at that temperature.

Professor Wendy Barclay, one of the authors of the study from the Division of Investigative Science at Imperial College London, said: “Bird viruses are out there all the time but they can only cause pandemics when they undergo certain changes. Our study gives vital clues about what kinds of changes would be needed in order for them to mutate and infect humans, potentially helping us to identify which viruses could lead to a pandemic.

“It would be impossible to develop vaccines against all 16 subtypes of avian flu, so we need to prioritise. By studying a range of different viruses in systems like this one we can look for warnings that they are already beginning to make the kinds of genetic changes in nature that mean they could be poised to jump into humans; animal viruses that spread well at low temperatures in these cultures could be more likely to cause the next pandemic than those which are restricted,” added Professor Barclay.

The research was funded by the Medical Research Council in the UK and by the NIH in the USA.

PUBLICATION DATE: 05/22/2009
SOURCE: Imperial College London news

__________ Information from ESET Smart Security, version of virus signature database 5152 (20100528) __________

The message was checked by ESET Smart Security.

http://www.eset.com

Kategori:Informasi
  1. Minggu, 21 Juli 2013 pukul 11:03 pm

    C All these liquids you can find in your refrigerator avoid white hair growth and all you need to
    accept before you start applying it. If you let’s look at think about a 200 bogie, you used to talk about work. Says photographer Michael Childers, who got rid of some ailment problems which they carried to their graves. Jimmy Burrows, who along with Glen and Les Charles created” Cheers.

  2. Minggu, 19 Januari 2014 pukul 10:51 am

    So unlocking it would give you considerable advantage over a phone that you are using under contract with some carrier.
    Analysts and pundits were off the mark with that prediction, as instead Apple chose to
    release the i – Phone 5C as a replacement for the i – Phone 5, which in the past the company would
    have continued to sell at a $99 price point on contract. If you need to unlock your phone, visit us at and find out more about the
    official i – Phone unlock service.

  3. Rabu, 19 Februari 2014 pukul 7:05 pm

    You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to be really something that
    I think I would never understand. It seems too complex and extremely broad for me.
    I’m looking forward for your next post, I will try to get the hang
    of it!

  4. Rabu, 12 Maret 2014 pukul 6:05 am

    What’s up, after reading this remarkable paragraph i am
    also happy to share my experience here with
    friends.

  5. Rabu, 12 Maret 2014 pukul 8:38 am

    If you wish for to obtain a great deal from this paragraph then you have to apply these methods to your won webpage.

  6. Rabu, 12 Maret 2014 pukul 10:43 am

    Hi there, this weekend is fastidious in favor of me, because this time i am
    reading this impressive educational article here at my home.

  7. Rabu, 12 Maret 2014 pukul 10:44 am

    You will discover about three nearly all important causes to why you ought to do not delay
    get rid of every one of the network limits from an
    individual smart phone. There are reliable and
    trustworthy websites that are well expertise in offering
    the unlocking procedures which are efficient and
    easy to use. Beginning today Apple has begun
    accepting orders for unlocked GSM versions of the i
    – Phone 5S via the firm’s online store.

  8. Rabu, 12 Maret 2014 pukul 10:48 am

    Except for the i – Phone 4, which will probably
    continue to be sold as a low-end handset.

    This is used to identify a user when unlocking the phone.
    Almost all the gadgets launched by the brand are amazing in features and incredible
    in looks.

  9. Rabu, 12 Maret 2014 pukul 10:49 am

    Attractive portion of content. I just stumbled upon your site and in accession capital to assert
    that I get in fact loved account your blog posts.
    Any way I’ll be subscribing on your augment or even I achievement you
    access constantly quickly.

  10. Rabu, 12 Maret 2014 pukul 10:51 am

    Thank you for sharing your thoughts. I really appreciate your efforts and
    I will be waiting for your further post thank you once again.

  11. Rabu, 12 Maret 2014 pukul 11:24 am

    Some people criticize this as a flawless design for i – Phone and prefer
    their old i – Phone. Analysts and pundits were off the mark with that prediction, as instead Apple chose to release the i
    – Phone 5C as a replacement for the i – Phone 5, which in the past the company would have continued to sell at a $99
    price point on contract. Pay – Pal is used as the means
    of making the payments and after you have paid, an download facility is
    provide to you instantly and after this you will be facilitated by
    unlocking the iphone easily.

  12. Kamis, 13 Maret 2014 pukul 12:08 am

    Once you press the “Home” button, you will be prompted to
    use the fingerprint sensor in order to view anything on your phone.

    The unlocked version is the same as those that have already hit the
    market, but they do not come with an SIM card. This will appeal to young adults in their early 20’s and even teenagers who often
    beg for an i – Phone as their birthday gift.

  13. Kamis, 13 Maret 2014 pukul 7:24 am

    You will discover about three nearly all important causes to why
    you ought to do not delay get rid of every one of the network limits from an individual
    smart phone. Analysts and pundits were off the
    mark with that prediction, as instead Apple chose to release the i – Phone 5C as a
    replacement for the i – Phone 5, which in the past the company would have continued to sell at a
    $99 price point on contract. If you need to unlock your phone, visit us at and find out more about the official
    i – Phone unlock service.

  14. Rabu, 19 Maret 2014 pukul 11:52 am

    Except for the i – Phone 4, which will probably
    continue to be sold as a low-end handset. Web pages render much quicker
    as well and there is no lag or slowdown when loading apps and navigating menus.
    One of the best features found in the device
    is its 8 megapixel camera that further comes blessed with
    useful options.

  15. Rabu, 19 Maret 2014 pukul 9:28 pm

    Some people criticize this as a flawless design for
    i – Phone and prefer their old i – Phone. It will be available in silver, gold and space gray.
    One of the best features found in the device is its 8 megapixel camera that
    further comes blessed with useful options.

  16. Kamis, 20 Maret 2014 pukul 4:27 am

    I phone has been a trend setter in terms of business and funky phones for
    last few years and since its launch, it has been a rage in all age
    groups of society. Additionally, the sensor is about 170 microns thin
    with 500 ppi resolution and used to unlock the i – Phone 5S or make purchases.
    Pay – Pal is used as the means of making the payments and after you
    have paid, an download facility is provide to you instantly and after this you will be facilitated by unlocking the iphone easily.

  17. Senin, 24 Maret 2014 pukul 3:02 am

    Hi there! This is my first comment here so
    I just wanted to give a quick shout out and tell
    you I genuinely enjoy reading your posts. Can you recommend any
    other blogs/websites/forums that go over the same topics?
    Thanks a ton!

  18. Senin, 24 Maret 2014 pukul 10:11 am

    Some people criticize this as a flawless design for i –
    Phone and prefer their old i – Phone. Analysts and pundits were off the mark
    with that prediction, as instead Apple chose to release the i – Phone 5C as a replacement for the
    i – Phone 5, which in the past the company would have continued
    to sell at a $99 price point on contract. If you need to unlock your phone, visit
    us at and find out more about the official i – Phone unlock service.

  19. Kamis, 27 Maret 2014 pukul 12:03 am

    AT&T has been making great strides in service
    quality tying and in some cases outstripping their rival.

    There are reliable and trustworthy websites that are well expertise in offering the unlocking procedures which are efficient and easy to use.
    Instead, you can simply switch the SIM card in the phone and use the local GSM services,
    just like the way you have been using on any previous unlocked phone.

  20. Rabu, 2 April 2014 pukul 3:31 pm

    I phone has been a trend setter in terms of business and funky phones for
    last few years and since its launch, it has been a rage in all age groups of society.

    Analysts and pundits were off the mark with that prediction, as instead
    Apple chose to release the i – Phone 5C as a replacement for the i – Phone
    5, which in the past the company would have continued to sell at a $99 price
    point on contract. Instead, you can simply switch the SIM
    card in the phone and use the local GSM services, just like the way you have been using on
    any previous unlocked phone.

  21. Minggu, 6 April 2014 pukul 1:45 am

    The main gain to jailbreaking an i – Phone five is the ability to turn it right into a Wi-Fi
    hotspot. The unlocked version is the same as those that have already hit the market,
    but they do not come with an SIM card. Instead, you can
    simply switch the SIM card in the phone and use the local GSM services,
    just like the way you have been using on any previous unlocked phone.

  22. Kamis, 10 April 2014 pukul 10:44 am

    Wow, fantastic blog structure! How lengthy have you been running
    a blog for? you make blogging look easy.
    The overall glance of your web site is wonderful, let alone
    the content!

  23. Lin
    Kamis, 10 April 2014 pukul 11:06 pm

    Once you press the “Home” button, you will be prompted to use
    the fingerprint sensor in order to view anything on your phone.

    Analysts and pundits were off the mark with that prediction, as instead Apple chose to release
    the i – Phone 5C as a replacement for the i – Phone 5, which in the past the company would have continued to sell at a $99
    price point on contract. Instead, you can simply switch the SIM card in the phone and use the
    local GSM services, just like the way you have been using on any previous unlocked
    phone.

  24. Minggu, 17 Agustus 2014 pukul 12:40 am

    Great info. Lucky me I ran across your website by accident
    (stumbleupon). I have saved it for later!

  25. Selasa, 19 Agustus 2014 pukul 12:23 pm

    Undeniably believe that which you said. Your favorite
    justification seemed to be on the net the easiest thing to be aware
    of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while
    people think about worries that they plainly do
    not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole
    thing without having side effect , people can take a signal.
    Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  26. Senin, 28 November 2016 pukul 11:30 am

    I am no longer certain where you’re getting your info, however good topic. I needs to spend some time studying more or figuring out more. Thanks for fantastic info I was in search of this info for my mission.

  1. No trackbacks yet.

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s

%d blogger menyukai ini: