Archive for Jumat, 1 Mei 2009

Poultry Management: Composting Daily Mortality

Jumat, 1 Mei 2009 8 komentar

Poultry producers in the United States have to deal with numerous issues in the day to day operation of their facilities. One important issue is the disposal of their daily mortality. Several options are available to poultry producers, including: burial, incineration, rendering, and composting. Available options are becoming more restrictive with rising processing costs and continued concerns of environmental safety. The objective of this broiler tip is to inform readers of the viability of composting daily poultry mortality, not only as a means of dead bird disposal but also as a means of maintaining good environmental stewardship.

While there are several options available for mortality disposal, issues of environmental concerns have been raised regarding some of these alternatives. The use of burial pits has been eliminated as a disposal option in much of the United States due in part to the discovery of undecomposed carcasses unearthed years after burial. The utilization of rendering facilities have been limited due to high transportation costs to these facilities and the issue of incorporation of feathers during the rendering process. The use of incineration is now popular and is used by a large number of poultry producers where pits are outlawed. While it is one of the most biologically secure methods of dead bird disposal, the rising price of fuel globally is making incineration a very expensive method of disposal. Incineration also poses concerns of air quality due to particulate emission and odors associated with the process.
Baca selanjutnya…


Artificial Incubation

Jumat, 1 Mei 2009 2 komentar

Artificial incubation of poultry eggs is an ancient practice. Aristotle writing in the year 400 B.C. told of Egyptians incubating eggs spontaneously in dung heaps. The Chinese developed artificial incubation at least as early as 246 B.C. These early incubation methods were often practiced on a large scale, a single location perhaps having capacity of 36,000 eggs.

The application of incubation principles was a closely guarded secret, passed from one generation to the next. The proper temperature was judged by placing an incubating egg in one’s eye socket for accurate determination. Temperature changes were effected in the incubator by moving the eggs, by adding additional eggs to use the heat of embryological development of older eggs, and by regulating the flow of fresh air through the hatching area. Humidity was evidently not a problem as primitive incubators were located in highly humid areas, and the heat source, often burning materials, furnished water around the eggs. Turning was done as often as five times in a 24-hour period after the fourth day of incubation.

The construction, use, and patent of artificial incubators in the United States dates from about 1844. The Smith incubator, virtually a large room with fans for forcing heated air to all parts of the incubation chamber, was patented in 1918. It was the forerunner of today’s efficient, large-scale incubator, used for the hatching of chicken, turkey, duck, and other eggs.

Baca selanjutnya…