Latest Trends in Poultry Production Development in Russia. High Productive Poultry Cross and Feeding Peculiarities
Russian meat market capacity have been assumed as 7 469 thousands tones in year 2005. Market structure is 35% – poultry meat, 29% – pork meat, 33% – beef, 3% – others. From which poultry meat of local production – 28%, beef- 36%, pork- 32%.
From market recourses 52 kg of different types of meat accounts for head including 34,3 kg of local production: beef- 12,5 kg, pork- 11 kg, poultry – 9,3 kg. General balance of animal protein production consist on 40 % from poultry output.
All import meat comes to Russia as deep frozen and quality is not the best, and 70 % of it comes as cut carcass parts.
Buyer’s preferences turned to cooled local meat which is ready to use. That is why Russian producers being in hard price competition with deep frozen meat producers have to strengthen attention to packaging and product marking, for the purpose of product recognizability.
Egg’s and egg product’s market in Russia is formed by local production, excluding supply from Belarus and Ukraine (0,7%). In average each Russian consumes 242 eggs per year. Quality requirements are increased and eggs enriched by selenium, iodine and vitamins production increased as well as eggs without shell. At this moment enriched egg’s production are not more than 20 %.
In Central federal okrug poultry meat production is 31%, Privolzhskij-20, Juzhnyj-17, Sibirskij – 11, Severo-Zapadnyj- 10, Uralskij – 9, Dalnevostochnyj- 2%.
The biggest egg production is in Privolzhskij federal okrug – 25%, Central-21, Sibirskij- 15, Juzhnyj – 14, Uralskij- 11, Severo-Zapadnyj – 11%.
The most considerable value in general egg market recourses play big factories.
More and more poultry farms reach high competitiveness, using new technologies and high productive poultry crosses. As a result broiler production have been increased by more than 40 % with productivity level of more than 45 gr., and more than 22% of egg production with productivity level of more than 300 eggs per layer. In average broiler productivity have been increased by 2, 9 g (43,9g), egg-laying qualities – by 8 eggs (301) per
year in Russia.
In present moment in broiler production 10, 3% of meat produced by poultry productivity more that 50 g, 43, 5%- from 45 to 50 g, 34, 2 % – from 40 to 45 g. There is already experience of high productive broiler farming (more than 50 g ) and decreasing of fattening period till 35 days, when conversion rate is 1,6 -1,7 kg of feed per 1 kg of weight gain.
In egg production 17,2 % of eggs are produced by productivity more that 330 eggs, 57,2% – from 300 till 330, 18% – from 270 till 300 eggs, 7,6% with productivity less than 270 eggs. At the same time poultry farm Sverdlovskaja (egg production is 711, 2 mln.), poultry farm Chelabinskaja (524 mln. of eggs) have productivity of 338 eggs each, Borovskaja and Belorechenskaja – 335 eggs under production of 821 and 518 mln. accordingly. Profitability of above mentioned farms is approximately 20%, average in Russia – 11 %, for broiler production – 20-22%.
Russian poultry farms strongly cooperate with big foreign breeding companies, such as Aviagen, Lohmann, Habbard-Iza, Hendricks Poultry Breeders, Hybro, Hy-Line, Dominant, Cherri Velle, Grimmo, BUT.
Local and foreign breeder’s genetic productivity potential is high.
Local meat poultry cross, developed during last 5-10 years , have high growing speed – 56 gram per day, conversion rate is 1,7 kg of feed per 1 kg of weight gain. One breeding couple yields 130-135 chickens, what equivalent in future to 270-290 kg of meat.
Egg cross layer bears up to 330-340 eggs during 72 weeks of life, conversion rate is 1,15-1,20 kg per ten and livability is 96-97 % when scientific – substantiate feeding standards observed.
It is well known that basic for layer’s and meat poultry’s diets is maize – perfect energy source and Soya shrot as best natural amino acids source.
Climatic conditions in main Russian agricultural regions, like in Europe, are not suitable for planting above mentioned cultures. From other side prices for maize and Soya shrot on international market gradually growing.
Grain diet basic for poultry in Russia are barley, wheat, rye, oats, peas – ingredients with low level of metabolic energy as there are a lot of non – starch polysaccharide: ß – glucans, arabinoxilans (pentosans), fiber and others, which increase chyme’s viscosity, decreased diffusion and nutrients utilization.
Naturally, birds feel digestible nutrient’s shortage when normalization of gross nutrients content takes place. Shortage is intensified by fact, that modern poultry cross have increased metabolism what is differ from earliest cross.
Nutrients and energy utilization speed from such feed is not in accordance with intensity of protein and lipids synthesis of eggmass and weight gain.
Sunflower by-product used in Russia as protein natural origin feed. But sunflower, which has high crop in Russian conditions, has high quantity of fiber and non – starch polysaccharide, that is why nutritional value of sunflower shrot – protein source- is decreased.
Last years more popular have became to use enzyme into the feed, which hydrolyze ß – glucans and pentosans in poultry’s digestion tract, enhancing protein and lipids digestion and metabolic energy.
There are a lot of aspects in problem of modern cross value feeding, scientific research in this direction – continuous process, as each year there are some new thorough knowledge which have to be directed to prior applied research.
Here are some questions of this problem.
First of all, new trend in poultry farming – production of food eggs and poultry meat with medicinal quality (eggs with Iodine, products enriched by certain vitamins, low cholesterol content, decreased fat content in meat and etc).
Second important trend – mycotoxins in feed and quality of end products. Mycotoxins decrease bird’s viability, immune status and productivity. Mycotoxin residues in poultry products are dangerous for human health.
Development of principally new adsorbents is needed. Creation of specific probiotics- microorganisms (bacteria, yeast) which are able to metabolize mycotoxins in intestinal tract of animal into non hazardous products is most perspective in present moment.
At the same time, there are a lot of phytogenous, animal and microbial origin ingredients do not existing in natural conditions as feed ingredients, in poultry farming are used for balancing of diet. There are a lot of different toxins in such ingredients. And animal is very sensitive to them because of natural defense mechanism absence.
However, stability of different animal types to many natural toxins varies extremely wide.
Research shows that quails, guinea-fowls, hens, turkeys have high stability against trichothecenes, which accumulate in cereals on field as result of Fusarium fungi activity, and very often in high dosage. Ducks and goose 2-5 times more sensitive to these mycotoxins. Pork 15-20 times less stable than layers. But layers are very sensitive to poor quality fish and meat bone mill, where a lot of bacterial toxins.
Third important trend – biological role of vitamins in full ration modern cross feeding. Taking into account new knowledge necessarily make amendments to vitamin poultry feeding, I will speak more detailed only about vitamin E.
More attention is put to increasing vitamin E dosage in broiler and layer diet. Because vitamin E (tocopherol) has apparent antioxidant action protecting animal from oxidation process. Intramuscular fats more sensitive to oxidation in poultry meat and fish, less in pork, and less in mutton and beef.
Meat stability to oxidation directly depends on tocopherol concentration in it. Moreover there is clear correlation between vitamin E in diet and vitamin E content in animal liver and tissues. It’s very actual in present moment, when poultry feedstuffs fortified by vegetable oils, which full of easy acescent polyunsaturated fatty acids. For this purpose have been studied different vitamin E levels in feedstuffs for broilers.
Trials shows that feed with higher vitamin E level (100-150 g per ton) during whole fattening period or only last 2-3 weeks before slaughter preserve livestock, increasing by 3,0-6,8% live weight, decrease by 1,1-3,5 % feed conversion rate per 1 kg of gain.
Vitamin A and E in chicken liver, tocopherol accumulation in meat and fat with concentration necessary for reliable storage during 15 and 120 days was reported. Group (received 50 g Vitamin E per ton) compare with chicken group (received 30g of Vitamin E per ton) oxidation processes have been lower 1,6-3 times and meat palatability have been improved.
Vitamin E for layers important as well. Especially it is necessary for breeders as high egg-laying qualities, conception rate and birth chicken rate need greatly much higher vitamin E dosage in diet.
Tocopherol content in egg yolk increasing when it is increasing in feed.
Vitamin E preserve organism from defeat by aerogenic pollutant, also weaken general toxicosis from heavy metals and mycotoxins. Vitamin E is needed for selenium-protein and ascorbic acid synthesis, stabilize immune status.
Forth trend – natural growth promoter in poultry and animal feeding. Refuse from feeding antibiotics – to obtain ecologically safe products for humans.
In this case it is very interesting application of herbal extracts, probiotics and also organic acids.
In present moment organic acids are used in poultry feeding first of all for preserving feedstuffs and grain, and also during ensiling. Action is as follows: decreasing pH level, microorganism growth control.
Organic acids by alone and in blend stimulate acidifying poultry intestinal tract, what slow down pathogenic growth and create favorable conditions for beneficial micro flora development and digestion.
Such product is in assortment of Biomin Company, name is Biotronic Se Forte. Trials shows, that Biotronic decrease quantity of hydrochloric acid which necessary for feed digestion in the gut.
Thus, acids blend and ratio in Biotronic effectively decrease feed’s acid binding capacity (ABC) or intestinal and gastric micro flora’s pH
• Trials were done by ÂÍÈÒÈÏ with broiler cross «Kobb».
• Control group: feedstuff without acidifier.
• Two trials group: feedstuff with 1 and 2 kg per ton of feed.
Also was checked complex application of Biotronic and PEP, dosage 1, 0 and 0, 5 kg accordingly.
Acidifier influenced on broiler live weight, which till the end of the trial was 5, 9-6, 97% higher compare with control group. Conversion rate was also decreased by 10, 4- 5, 3 % per head.
Increasing bird growing and decreasing feed costs per head shows decrease of feed cost by 18, 4-13, 0% .
Well known that ABC and further dosage are depending on diet. In our trials control group feed has ABC as 8-9, acidifier incorporation into the feed decreased ABC to 7, 2-6, 1 and 5, 9-5, 0.
Difference between control group and trial run up to 30%, ABC between trial groups where not differ too much. That is why there any difference between live weights in correlation with product dosage. Livestock safety in trial group exceed control group by 2, 13%.
In re-trials feedstuff’s ABC have been increased by pea addition and than different dosage efficacy was examined. Received result was positive.
Authors: V.I. FISININ and I.A. EGOROV
All- Russian Poultry Research and Technological Institute