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Keep Water for Poultry Clean to Avoid Serious Diseases

Senin, 9 Juni 2008

Since contaminated water can transmit serious diseases to birds, poultry owners should always provide good quality water for their flocks. “We know that avian influenza can be spread through water that wild ducks have been on,” says Gerald Hauer, assistant chief provincial veterinarian. “Most people know to keep their poultry away from dugouts and ponds, but we want to remind them to treat that water before they let their birds drink it.” To determine whether water needs treatment, first consider the source. If the water is from a well or municipal source, the risk of introducing diseases is minimal. If using surface water, such as from dugouts or ponds, the risk is much higher. Though there are several ways to treat water; chlorination is the most common and inexpensive. A concentration of two to five parts per million will kill most viruses, including avian influenza. Here are some formulas for mixing chlorine with water: * For a bulk tank, add 45 mL of household bleach (five-per-cent chlorine) to 455 litres of water. This is equivalent to adding 1.6 fluid ounces of five-per-cent bleach to 100 imperial gallons. * People treating water by the bucket can add 2.5 mL to 22.5 litres of water (half a teaspoon to a five-gallon pail). * If using an automatic water treatment system, be sure to set it to deliver the proper amount of chlorine. * Always let the water sit for 10 minutes with the chlorine added before giving it to the birds, (this is how long it might take for the chlorine to kill viruses present in the water). Sometimes water contains impurities that can affect the chlorine´s ability to kill viruses. For example, soil particles, organic material, ammonia and minerals can make chlorine ineffective. If there are high levels of any impurities, consult with a water quality specialist on ways to get around this problem. Poultry owners should be aware that changing watering practices can have unintended effects on flocks. “You want to pay attention to your birds´ consumption whenever you make a change in their water,” Hauer says. “You need to make sure they are drinking enough.” Also, even a small amount of chlorine can kill modified live virus vaccine added to the water. If vaccinating birds through the water, use clean water with no chlorine. The cardinal rule for birds is to keep them away from dirty water. “Never let poultry drink untreated water from a pond, dugout or anywhere else that wild birds have access to,” Hauer adds. “That is just basic biosecurity and it keeps all of Alberta´s livestock safe and healthy.” Published 06/06/2008 Source: Government of Alberta Agri-News

  1. Senin, 9 Juni 2008 pukul 12:18 pm

    Spread of avian flu by drinking water:

    Proved awareness to ecology and transmission is necessary to understand the spread of avian flu. For this it is insufficient exclusive to test samples from wild birds, poultry and humans for avian flu viruses. Samples from the known abiotic vehicles also have to be analysed. There are plain links between the cold, rainy seasons as well as floods and the spread of avian flu. That is just why abiotic vehicles have to be analysed. The direct biotic transmission from birds, poultry or humans to humans can not depend on the cold, rainy seasons or floods. Water is a very efficient abiotic vehicle for the spread of viruses – in particular of fecal as well as by mouth, nose and eyes excreted viruses.

    Infected birds and poultry can everywhere contaminate the drinking water. All humans have very intensive contact to drinking water. Spread of avian flu by drinking water can explain small clusters in households too. Proving viruses in water is difficult because of dilution. If you find no viruses you can not be sure that there are not any. On the other hand in water viruses remain viable for a long time. Water has to be tested for influenza viruses by cell culture and in particular by the more sensitive molecular biology method PCR.

    There is a widespread link between avian flu and water, e.g. in Egypt to the Nile delta or Indonesia to residential districts of less prosperous humans with backyard flocks and without central water supply as in Vietnam: See also the WHO web side: .

    Transmission of avian flu by direct contact to infected poultry is an unproved assumption from the WHO. There is no evidence that influenza primarily is transmitted by saliva droplets: “Transmission of influenza A in human beings” .

    Avian flu infections may increase in consequence to increase of virus circulation. In hot climates/the tropics flood-related influenza is typical after extreme weather and floods. Virulence of influenza viruses depends on temperature and time. Special in cases of local water supplies with “young” and fresh H5N1 contaminated water from low local wells, cisterns, tanks, rain barrels, ponds, rivers or rice paddies this pathway can explain small clusters in households. At 24°C e.g. in the tropics the virulence of influenza viruses in water amount to 2 days. In temperate climates for “older” water from central water supplies cold water is decisive to virulence of viruses. At 7°C the virulence of influenza viruses in water amount to 14 days.

    Human to human and contact transmission of influenza occur – but are overvalued immense. In the course of influenza epidemics in Germany, recognized clusters are rare, accounting for just 9 percent of cases e.g. in the 2005 season. In temperate climates the lethal H5N1 virus will be transferred to humans via cold drinking water, as with the birds in February and March 2006, strong seasonal at the time when drinking water has its temperature minimum.

    The performance to eliminate viruses from the drinking water processing plants regularly does not meet the requirements of the WHO and the USA/USEPA. Conventional disinfection procedures are poor, because microorganisms in the water are not in suspension, but embedded in particles. Even ground water used for drinking water is not free from viruses.
    Ducks and rice [paddies = flooded by water] major factors in bird flu outbreaks, says UN agency
    Ducks and rice fields may be a critical factor in spreading H5N1
    26 March 2008 – Ducks, rice [fields, paddies = flooded by water! Farmers on work drink the water from rice paddies!] and people – and not chickens – have emerged as the most significant factors in the spread of avian influenza in Thailand and Viet Nam, according to a study carried out by a group of experts from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and associated research centres.

    “Mapping H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza risk in Southeast Asia: ducks, rice and people” also finds that these factors are probably behind persistent outbreaks in other countries such as Cambodia and Laos.
    The study, which examined a series of waves of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Thailand and Viet Nam between early 2004 and late 2005, was initiated and coordinated by FAO senior veterinary officer Jan Slingenbergh and just published in the latest issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States.
    Through the use of satellite mapping, researchers looked at a number of different factors, including the numbers of ducks, geese and chickens, human population size, rice cultivation and geography, and found a strong link between duck grazing patterns and rice cropping intensity.

    In Thailand, for example, the proportion of young ducks in flocks was found to peak in September-October; these rapidly growing young ducks can therefore benefit from the peak of the rice harvest in November-December [at the beginning of the cold: Thailand, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos are situated – different from Indonesia – in the northern hemisphere].

    “These peaks in congregation of ducks indicate periods in which there is an increase in the chances for virus release and exposure, and rice paddies often become a temporary habitat for wild bird species,” the agency said in a news release.

    “We now know much better where and when to expect H5N1 flare-ups, and this helps to target prevention and control,” said Mr. Slingenbergh. “In addition, with virus persistence becoming increasingly confined to areas with intensive rice-duck agriculture in eastern and south-eastern Asia, evolution of the H5N1 virus may become easier to predict.”

    He said the findings can help better target control efforts and replace indiscriminate mass vaccination.
    FAO estimates that approximately 90 per cent of the world’s more than 1 billion domestic ducks are in Asia, with about 75 per cent of that in China and Viet Nam. Thailand has about 11 million ducks.

    Dipl.-Ing. Wilfried Soddemann – Epidemiologist – Free Science Journalist

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